The Rebels got off to the best possible start as, in the third minute, Charlie Mpi showed good strength to hold off a defender and bear down on goal, before lifting a shot past Ben John via the underside of the bar.
Slough were the dominant side in the first half, and Adrian Sear fired over from the edge of the box before Mpi went close again with a flicked header which John had to scramble across to save.
Warren Harris saw a goal bound volley blocked on the edge of the box, but on 25 minutes Slough doubled their lead with a superbly-placed effort from on-loan midfielder Declan Benjamin, after he was teed up by Warren Harris. Paul Stonehouse's cross found its way to the winger, who played it into the path of Benjamin, who side footed a fine shot past John and into the roof of the net.
Despite looking comfortable, Slough's keeper Mark Scott needed to be alert to thwart Paulton's Ross Staley with an important block. Scott was on hand again minutes later to force Tom Knighton wide of goal.
Paulton, growing increasingly frustrated, had Aaron Brown booked, whilst a member of their management team was ordered away from the dugout by the referee.
A minute before the end of the half, the Rebels missed a great chance to make it 3-0. Paul Stonehouse's whipped ball across the face of goal was met by Dan Hicks, but he could only put the ball over the bar from a matter of yards out.
Slough were good value for their half time lead, but their intensity dropped in the second half and Paulton saw more of the play.
Scott got down well to save from Staley's long range shot, and the visitors had a goal disallowed with Morgan-Williams penalised for a push as he headed in from a free kick.
Scott was in action again on 77 minutes as Paulton's best move of the game saw substitute Ben Bament set up Kyle Tooze who cut inside but failed to beat the keeper.
Darren Mullins was shown a second yellow card late on as Paulton finished with ten men.
But there was still time for late drama as, a minute into stoppage time, the visitors were awarded a penalty when Tooze was caught by Scott in the penalty area as he came to try and claim the ball. Bament converted the spot kick confidently, but it proved to be a consolation goal as Slough held on to claim all three points.
Paulton Rovers Line up
Ben John (c), Alex Grimshaw, Aaron Brown, Adrian Harris, Josh Ford, Craig Allan, Darren Mullings, Ross Staley, Tom Knighton, Josh Morgan-Williams, Kyle Toome. Subs: Jordan Ricketts, Ben Bament, Jack Allward, Nathan Rudge, Richard Fey.